Sistemi treninga

Sistemi treninga

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Prejšnji mesec sem začela s serijo člankov. Prvi je imel naslov ”Primum non nocere – Ne povzročaj škode”. Namen teh člankov je ponovno ovrednotenje tega, kar počnemo s konji. Na ta način lahko vsak pride do informacij, ki jih potrebuje za odločitev, ali želi nadaljevati s tradicionalnim načinom dela s konji, ali pa želi narediti preskok k načinu, ki ne ogroža konjevega telesa in duha.

Ta mesec se bom osredotočila na sisteme treninga. Iz katerih koli razlogov je bil več kot 20 let moj vir dohodka treniranje konj, katerega osnova je bilo ujahovanje konj za tekmovanja ali rekreativno jahanje. Na začetku sem se naučila, kako začeti delati z mladimi konji od drugih trenerjev, iz knjig in z veliko poskušanja.

Čeprav se zdi, da obstaja stotine trenerjev in ”sistemov” treninga, so njihove osnove enake v skoraj vseh primerih. Vse vključujejo različne vaje in pripomočke za doseganje ciljev, ampak da bi res razumeli sistem, ga moramo najprej razgaliti in vprašati: ”Kaj je konjeva motivacija?”

V nadaljevanju bo v pomoč vedeti, kaj je ”operantno (instrumentalno) pogojevanje”. Tudi če še nikoli niste slišali tega izraza, če ste kdaj koli v življenju trenirali kogar koli, vključno s konjem, otrokom, psom, delfinom, ste verjetno uporabljali obliko operantnega pogojevanja. Operantno pogojevanje je definirano kot ”uporaba posledic za spremembo pojava in oblike vedenja”. Pri operantnem pogojevanju se uporabljajo samo trije izrazi: ojačevanje, kazen in ugašanje (izginotje).

Ojačevanje je posledica dejanja, česar rezultat je, da se to dejanje pojavlja pogosteje. Kazen je posledica dejanja, česar rezultat je, da se to dejanje pojavlja manj pogosto. Ugašanje se nanaša na vedenje, na katerega ni odziva, kar bo na koncu vodilo do tega, da se bo to vedenje pojavljalo manj pogosto. Izraza ”pozitivno” in ”negativno” sta dodana za razjasnitev teh postopkov. V tem kontekstu ”pozitivno” pomeni samo, da je nekaj dodano, medtem ko ”negativno” pomeni, da je nekaj odvzeto.

Torej so 4 glavne možnosti pri operantnem pogojevanju naslednje:

Pozitivno ojačevanje (R+): dodajanje nečesa zaželenega, da bi se vedenje z večjo verjetnostjo ponovilo.

Negativno ojačevanje (R-): odvzem nečesa nezaželenega (neprijetnega) z namenom, da bi se vedenje z večjo verjetnostjo ponovilo.

Pozitivna kazen (P+): dodajanje nečesa nezaželenega z namenom, da se zmanjša verjetnost ponavljanja vedenja.

Negativna kazen (P-): odvzem nečesa zaželenega z namenom, da se zmanjša verjetnost ponavljanja vedenja.

Da poenostavim stvari, moram samo predstaviti primere.

Pozitivno ojačevanje: otroku damo nagrado, potem ko je pospravil sobo.

Negativno ojačevanje: otroku ne dovolimo iti ven, dokler ne pospravi sobe.

Pozitivna kazen: udarimo otroka, ker je polil mleko.

Negativna kazen: otroku vzamemo igračo, če je noče deliti z drugimi.

V konjevem svetu bi ti primeri lahko izgledali tako:

R+: konju damo korenje, potem ko je prišel do vrat ograde.

R-: vlečemo za desno vajet, dokler konj ne obrne glave v desno.

P+: bičamo konja, če noče preskočiti ovire.

P-: konju ne damo žita, potem ko nas ni ubogal med jahanjem.

Zdaj, ko vemo nekaj o operantnem pogojevanju, se lahko vrnemo k vprašanju: ”Kaj je konjeva motivacija?” Če potegnemo zaključke iz teh primerov, lahko vidimo, da je, razgaljena do svojega bistva, konjeva motivacija v večini konjeniških sistemov treninga izogibanje ali zmanjšanje bolečine. Ti sistemi zelo slonijo na negativnem ojačevanju in pozitivni kazni, da motivirajo konje k vedenju, ki ga od njih želimo. Ena izjema, ki mi pride na misel, je ”kliker trening”, ki se osredotoča na pozitivno ojačevanje, da doseže želeno vedenje.

Pomislite na svojega najljubšega trenerja. Če želite, da se vaš konj premakne naprej, kaj vas naučijo, da morate najprej narediti? Najbrž stisniti z nogami. Če to ne deluje? Brcniti. Če to ne deluje? Brcniti močneje. Če to ne deluje? Bičati ali zbosti konja z ostrogami. In primeri česa so to? Negativnega ojačevanja. Konjeva ”nagrada” je, da se bo neudobje ali bolečina, ki ju povzroča jahač (vsaj tako konj upa) končala, ko se bo premaknil naprej. In kaj so vas učili, da morate narediti, kadar konj noče iti v hlev, prikolico ali čez potok? Najbrž kakšno kombinacijo vlečenja za oglavnico ali uzdo, brcanja, tepenja, bičanja ali zbadanja.
Vsi ti primeri so…? Pozitivna kazen.

dog6

Če ste jahač, ki ni nikoli treniral svojega konja in ste bili blagoslovljeni s konjem, za katerega se zdi, da ”dobro sledi programu” in z veseljem dela, kar od njega zahtevate, potem se po vsej verjetnosti niste preveč spraševali o vaših metodah. Našli ste nekaj, kar deluje, in se tega držite. Razlika med ”treniranim” konjem in ”netreniranim” ali ”težavnim” je, da je prvi na stopnji, na kateri so jahačeva dejstva lahko fina in zelo nežna; verjetno je enostaven dregljaj ali premik teže vse, kar je potrebno, da se konj ustavi, premakne ali obrne. ”Netrenirani” ali ”težavni” konji so tisti, ki so še vedno nesigurni v to, kakšen odziv bo prinesel najmanjšo bolečino, ali pa čutijo večjo fizično bolečino ali pa jih je tako strah, da laže prenašajo udarce z bičem in bolečino zaradi brzde kot bolečino zaradi svojih lastnih gibov ali strah zaradi negotovosti o tem, kaj od njih zahtevajo.

V vseh letih so mi poslali mnogo konj, ki so potrebovali ”korekcijo”. To so bili konji, ki so bili običajno odlični za novega lastnika v prvem mesecu ali nekaj več, potem pa so začeli imeti ”težave”. V preteklosti bi razložila lastniku z uporabo nežnih fraz kot: ”Konj se je naučil, da lahko to počne.” ali: ”Res je, ne morete pričakovati, da bo konj obdržal svoj nivo treniranosti brez profesionalne pomoči.” Sliši se logično, kajne? Kaj je to pomenilo v preprostem jeziku? ”Ali sta s konjem neusklajena ali pa so vaša dejstva postala premehka in konja je treba ponovno spomniti, kaj so boleče posledice, če se ne odziva na nežne signale.” Nekateri trenerji so boljši od drugih v tem, da povejo stvari tako, kot so, in nimajo nobenih dvomov in težav s tem, da s svojimi korekcijami ranijo konja, če ne ”dojame”. Drugi, kot jaz, bi malodušno naredili korekcije, pri tem pa bi se stalno spraševali, ali res mora biti tako, še posebej pri konjih, za katere se zdi, da rabijo trdo roko. Težko je biti uspešen v tem poslu, če se stalno sprašuješ taka vprašanja in vedno ustaviš bič ali poteg za vajet, preden doseže svojo maksimalno silo. To mi je prineslo ugled ”nežnega” konjskega trenerja.

Med svojim najbolj intenzivnim obdobjem spraševanja v zadnjem letu in pol sem se morala vprašati o moji lastni motivaciji. Zakaj sem hotela biti s konji? Najbolj osnoven odgovor je bil vedno, da želim izkusiti pravo partnerstvo s konjem. Ko zdaj gledam nazaj s svoje sedanje perspektive, se mi zdi izkrivljeno, da sem lahko pričakovala, da bom lahko imela pravo partnerstvo, če bom le lahko kontrolirala konja s pomočjo bolečine ali grožnje z bolečino. Če sem iskrena, je bil to edini način, na katerega sem znala delati z njimi. Seveda sem bila dovolj dobra, da so bila dejstva lahko prefinjena do minimalnih dregljajev in premikov teže in celo jahanja z bitless uzdo ali celo brez uzde, ampak posledice konjeve neubogljivosti so bile vedno ponovno povečanje bolečine, dokler se ni odločil, da se je bolje odzivati na lahen dražljaj.

Sekundarne in terciarne motivacije so prišle kasneje. Hotela sem živeti od dela s konji; hotela sem zmagovati na tekmah. Nekako se mi je zdelo, da se bo to lepo skladalo z mojo prvo motivacijo po izkušanju pravega partnerstva s konji. Ta domneva ni mogla biti dlje od resnice. Med časom, ki sem ga porabila za ustvarjanje dokumentarnega filma The Path of the Horse, sem se odrekla vsem svojim motivacijam, razen najbolj osnovni, tisti, ki me je prvotno pripeljala h konjem. Nisem se mogla več slepiti; nisem imela partnerstva, ki sem si ga želela, zato sem poiskala ljudi, ki ga imajo, in se učila od njih.

Človek, ki sem ga našla in za katerega se je zdelo, da ima vse to, je bil Alexander Nevzorov. Ampak zame ni bilo dovolj, da bi enostavno videla njegove filme in brala njegove članke, morala sem ga srečati, videti njegove učence v Rusiji in sama ugotoviti, ali je to samo bolj prefinjena oblika fizične kontrole, ali pa je res imel pravo vez s svojimi konji, ne da bi bilo to rezultat metod, ki povzročajo bolečino.

Zdelo se mi je kot obred iniciacije, ko sem morala opustiti brzde, tekmovanja in na koncu vse oblike kontroliranja konjeve glave ter načine in zadovoljstva jahanja, ki sem jih poznala, da bi lahko delala z Alexandrom. Takrat si nisem mogla predstavljati, zakaj bi konj hotel početi karkoli z mano, če sem ostala brez svojih trikov za manipuliranje. Ampak tam je stal, Alexander Nevzorov, s svojimi konji, ki so skakali okrog njega kot veseli kužki.

Kakšen sistem treninga je to, kjer ni običajnega govorjenega jezika in tudi ni prisile, bolečine ali grožnje z bolečino? Kam je to spadalo v model operantnega pogojevanja? Zdelo se je, da je presegel celo pozitivno ojačevanje in kliker trening. Pravzaprav se je zdelo, da so se konji naučili gibov, ki so jih naredili večje, svobodnejše in ponosne ne svoje dosežke. Kakšne načine je našel ta človek, da je izvlekel vse to iz konja?

Njegova metoda je zmotno enostavna. Človek ne sme nikoli škodovati konju, še posebej ne za lastno zadovoljstvo, in mora natančno preučiti konjeve telesne sisteme, da je lahko gotov, da nikoli ne škoduje konju. Potem je vprašanje časa, ki ga preživi skupaj s konjem, pri čemer najprej razvije igre in na koncu komunikacijski sistem med konjem in človekom, ki je veliko močnejši od vsakega treninga, ki povzroča bolečino.

Ko sem se začela učiti o konjevih anatomskih, fizioloških in mioloških sistemih, sem s strahom spoznala, da imajo splošno sprejete prakse, kot so uporaba brzd, podkev in celo pritisk jahača, vse negativne učinke na konjevo dobrobit. Rezulatati nekaterih od teh raziskav bodo natančneje prikazani v naslednjih člankih.

Našla sem način za razvijanje pravega partnerstva s konjem in to sploh ni bil sistem treninga, to je bil način za razvijanje obojestranske komunikacije. Človek stopi v vlogo učitelja; človek je tisti, ki se uči, kako razviti in odkriti konjeve skrite talente. Kaj je konjeva motivacija? Da se igra, teče, skače, se vzpenja, se zabava, kakor tudi da izvaja elemente, ki zahtevajo več discipline, da z njimi razvija moč in fleksibilnost, in vse to počne s človekom, ki ga razume in ga bo vedno ščitil, pri čemer bo imel v mislih samo najboljše namene. Resnično, to je prihodnost odnosov med konjem in človekom za tiste med nami, ki lahko prepoznamo konjevega duha.

Prevedeno in prirejeno z dovoljenjem ge. Stormy May
Prevedla: “Shandor”

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