Načrtovanje električne ograje za pašnik ali izpust

Načrtovanje električne ograje za pašnik ali izpust

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Vsebina članka vsebuje in predstavlja del ponudbe in je produkt iz prodajnega programa www.pastircek.si.

Snežna odeja in nizke temperature nas sicer še vztrajno prepričujejo da se zima ne bo pustila kar tako odgnati, a iz dneva v dan toplejši sončni žarki ter zvončki in teloh, ki nagajivo mežikajo izpod snežnih zaplat, pravijo da pomlad vendarle ni več daleč – in z njo tisti del leta, ko lahko svojim konjem privoščimo svežo pašo in življenje na prostem.

Lastniki in oskrbniki konj se večkrat srečujemo s težavami pri postavljanju ograj in pašnikov za naše živali. Sama ideja je preprosta, a ko se lotimo izvedbe, se človek hitro izgubi v številnih možnostih in različicah, tako pri izbiri materialov, kot pri tehnični izvedbi. Z namenom da vam pomagamo izbrati in postaviti kvalitetno ograjo, ki bo služila svojemu namenu in bo hkrati tudi trajna in cenovno dostopna, smo se odločili za vas pripraviti serijo člankov, v katerih vam bomo predstavili različne materiale in njihove lastnosti, kako se med seboj dopolnjujejo ali izključujejo, ter kako vse elemente povezati v delujočo celoto – funcionalen in varen pašnik.

Za začetek se posvetimo ograji kot celoti.

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Kaj je električna ograja in kako deluje?

Dobro postavljena električna ograja deluje na enostavnem principu svarilnih tokovnih impulzov. Kratki tokovni impulzi vzgojijo živali, da ne prehajajo električne ograje. Stik z ograjo (do katerega pri mladih živalih in pri živalih ki ne poznajo električne ograje, prej ali slej pride) je neprijetna izkušnja, zaradi katere se ograji v prihodnje ne približujejo. V primerjavi z drugimi vrstami ograjevanja (npr. bodeča žica, žičnata mreža), je električna ograja neprimerno bolj varna, učinkovita, praktična, živali prijazna, estetska in trajnejša. Lesena ali plastična ograja je sicer lepa, a cenovno veliko dražja, zahtevnejša za vzdrževanje in manj funkcionalna (živali jo lahko preskočijo ali oglodajo, saj predstavlja samo fizično, ne pa tudi psihološke pregrade).

V nasprotju s prepričanjem večine, električna ograja nima samo funkcije zadrževanja živali v ograji, ampak predstavlja tudi zaščito domačih živali pred vdorom divjih živali na pašnik, polja in druge ograjene površine.

Električno ograjo napaja pašni aparat, ki je priključen na ograjo (prevoden trak, žica ali pletenica) in povezan zemljo (ozemljen). Ko se žival dotakne ograje, se sklene električni tokokrog iz pašnega aparata, v ograjo, skozi žival v zemljo in nato po zemlji nazaj v pašni aparat. Če tokokrog ni sklenjen, tok ne steče po ograji, ampak se v ograji ob vsakem impulzu pojavi trenutna visoka napetost.

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Električna ograja je sistem, ki za svoje delovanje potrebuje različne elemente:

Glavni elementi električne ograje so:

  • pašni aparat ki proizvaja električne impulze,
  • trak, žica ali pletenica ki prevaja tok,
  • izolatorji, palice ali količki, ter ročke za ograjo ki omogočajo, da tok ne uhaja predčasno v zemljo, ter
  • dobra ozemljitev, ki omogoča, da se ob stiku živali z ograjo utvari zaključen tokokrog in se tok po zemlji vrne nazaj v pašni aparat. Vzpostavljen električni tokogrog je pogoj za enakomerne električne impulze v ograji, ki povzročijo neprijeten občutek ob dotiku in posledično odvračajo živali od ograje.

Zakaj električna ograja?

Električna ograja je najbolj ekonomičen in praktičen način za ograjevanje živali ali zaščito živali pred vdorom divjadi in zveri. Namestitev je izredno preprosta in omogoča postavitev ograje na praktično vsakršnem terenu.

Električna ograja lahko služi več namenom:

  • paša domačih živali (krave, ovce, koze, konji, perutnina, prašiči)
  • preprečevanje dostopa divjadi, škodljivcem in zverem na polja, sadovnjake, vrtove
  • varovanje čebelnjakov pred medvedi
  • zadrževanje psov tako znotraj, kot zunaj ograje in preprečevanje plezanja čez ograjo
  • uporaba v posebne namene (npr. odvračanje golobov od zbiranja na okenskih policah)

Če je električna ograja pravilno postavljena, odgovarja vsem varnostnim predpisom v zvezi s pašno ograjo. Ravno zaradi tega in zato, da svojim živalim zagotovite kar največjo varnost, ograji pa trajnost in učinkovitost, je zelo pomembna pravilna izbira pašne opreme.

Pri trakovih, žicah in pletenicah je potrebno posebno pozornost posvetiti ohmski upornosti (izražena je v enoti Ohm na meter – Ω/m) in pretržni trdnosti. Zaželjena je čim nižja ohmska upornost:

  • odlično: manj od 0,05 Ω/m
  • dobro: do 0,4 Ω/m
  • srednje: do 4,0 Ω/m
  • slabo: do 15,0 Ω/m
  • nezadostno: nad 15,0 Ω/m.

Pretržna trdnost označuje največjo težo, s katero je lahko trak, žica ali pletenica obremenjena, pa se pri tem ne pretrga.

Izolatorji in palice morajo imeti visoko ohmsko odpornost tudi pri visokih napetostih (dobri izolatorji so odporni na napetosti nad 20.000 Voltov).

Izbira elementov je odvisna od sledečih dejavnikov: vrsto živali, dolžino ograje, lokacije in izvora napajanja.

Namig: Namenite pozornost dobremu pašnemu materialu – celo najmočnejši pašni aparati ne bodo delovali po svojih zmožnostih, če pri nakupu posvetite premalo pozornosti kvaliteti ostalih elementov.


Osnovni pojmi o energiji, voltih in ohmih (Ω)

Kot smo že omenili, električna ograja deluje kot sistem. Dobro izbran pašni aparat je srce sistema, ki oddaja tok. Trajanje in jakost toka povzroča električne sunke. Ti električni sunki se imenujejo impulzi. Trajanje impulza je med 0,1 in 0,3 milisekunde.

Interval impulzov je malo daljši kot sekunda. Energija, ki se ustvari in prenese iz pašnega aparata v ograjo, se meri v Joulih. 1 J je 1 Watt na sekundo. Jouli so tisti, ki ob stiku z ograjo povzročajo neprijeten občutek.

Shranjena energija je energija pašnega aparata, ki jo dobi iz baterije ali omrežja in shrani v svojem rezervoarju. Energija ki nas zanima (energija praznjenja – impulzna energija), je maksimalna energija impulza, ki jo lahko prenesemo v ograjo. Večja je impulzna energija, močnejši je sunek ob dotiku in večji zastraševalni učinek ima.

Električna napetost se meri v Voltih. Volti so tisti, ki električni tok poganjajo po ograji. Napetost v Voltih = tok x upornost. Volti ne povzročajo neprijetnega občutka ob dotiku.

Upornost se meri v Ohmih (Ω). Upornost zmanjšuje tok. Jakost sunka ob stiku živali z ograjo, je odvisna od upornosti. Upornost se giblje od 0 Ω kar predstavlja kratek stik in 1000000 Ω, kar pomeni odlično izolacijo. Upornost pašne ograje se giblje v povprečju med 500 in 1000 Ω.

Ozemljitev pašnega aparata

Dobra ozemljitev je pomembna za učinkovito delovanje ograde. Pri pravilni postavitvi tvori ograja “odprt tokokrog” z izvorom pri pašnem aparatu. Tok potuje od pašnega aparata preko vodila (prevodnega traku, žice ali pletenice), ki je na nosilne elemente (palica ali količek) pritrjeno z izolatorji. Ko se žival dotakne ograje, se tokokrog sklene.

Za zaključen tokokrog in posledično dober pretok toka, se mora tokokrog zaključiti preko ozemljitve. Ozemljitev mora biti dovolj dobra, da omogoči pretok električnega sunka skozi žival, kar povzroči neprijeten občutek in žival odvrne od nadaljnega približevanja ograji. Pri slabi postavitvi ozemljitve žival ne bo čutila električnega sunka in ograja ne bo delovala.

Pri peščeni, kamniti in zelo suhi podlagi, bo prevodnost zemlje zelo slaba. V tem primeru je ozemljitev še bolj pomembna. Od pašnega aparata speljemo ozemljitveni kabel do ozemljitvenega količka in s tem vzpostavimo povezavo med aparatom in zemljo.

Za prenosne pašne aparate majhnih energij je pri povprečno prevodni zemlji ponavadi dovolj kovinska palica, ki je navadno priložena pašnim napravam.

Za zmogljivejše akumulatorske pašne aparate priporočamo uporabo 1 m dolgih ozemljitvenih palic. Pri pašnih aparatih s stalno postavitvijo priporočamo 2 do 3 palice dolžine 1 m, ki jih med seboj povežemo.

Ozemljitev je zadovoljiva, če je vrednost izmerjene napetosti na ozemljitvenem količku pod 400 V. Če ob stiku z ozemljitveno palico lahko čutite električne sunke, ozemljitev ni pravilna. V tem primeru namestite v zemljo še eno ali dve palici na razdalji 1-2 metra in jih povežite z ozemljitvenim kablom.

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Višina električne ograje

Višina žice na spodnjih skicah naj bo vodilo pri postavljanju električne ograje. Velikost živali ima pomemben vpliv na višino žice.

Posebno pozornost posvetite višini skoka živali.

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Jasno je, da pri postavljaju električne ograje potrebujemo vir elektrike – pašni aparat, ter prevoden material, ki elektriko popelje po vsej dolžini ograje – žico, trak ali pletenico. Ampak kako izbrati prave izdelke iz ponudbe, ki je – roko na srce – velika?

Kdor nima izkušenj s postavljanjem električne ograje, bi lahko zmotno verjel, da ni pomembno kakšen pašni aparat izbere, še posebej če je ograja razmeroma kratka, ali pa da bo dober, močan pašni aparat z lahkoto napajal električno ograjo, ne glede na izbiro žice, traku ali pletenice. Napaka. Pravilna izbira obojega – pašnega aparata in prevodnega materiala za ograjo – je ključnega pomena za pravilno in učinkovito delovanje električne ograje.

pasna oprema

Pa poglejmo naj kaj moramo biti pozorni:

Način napajanja pašnega aparata:

  1. Omrežno napajanje (220 V)Če imamo možnost pašni aparat priklopiti direktno na električno omrežje (220 V), je to gotovo najboljša in najugodnejša rešitev:

    Pozitivne lastnosti (+):

    • ekonomičnost – majhna poraba
    • stalna napetost v ograji
    • prihranimo čas ki ga zahteva polnjenje akumulatorskih pašnih aparatov
    • prihranimo stroške nakupa nove baterije pri baterijskih pašnih aparatih
    • ekološko najmanj škodljiv (ni odpadnih baterij, akumulatorjev)

    Negativne lastnosti (-):

    • omejena mobilnost (mora biti v bližini električnega omrežja)
  2. Baterijsko napajanje (9 V) Baterijski pašni aparati so sicer bolj praktični, saj jih lahko po želji premikamo in namestimo praktično kamorkoli, hkrati pa so manj zmogljivi in na dolgi rok precej manj ekonomični:

    Pozitivne lastnosti (+):

    • mobilnost in priročnost

    Negativne lastnosti (-):

    • večji stroški: ko se baterija iztroši, je potrebno kupiti novo
    • manjša učinkovitost: zaradi manjše zmogljivosti niso primerni za daljše ograje in za zahtevnejše živali
    • obremenjujoč za okolje (baterija – nevaren odpadek)
  3. Akumulatorsko napajanjeČe nimate možnosti priključitve pašnega aparata na električno omrežje, baterijski pašni aparat pa je prešibek za vaše potrebe, je tu še srednja pot – akumulatorski pašni aparat.

    Takšen aparat je sicer šibkejši od aparata ki je priklopljen direktno na električno omrežje, a je neprimerno močnejši od baterijskega, bolj ekonomičen (akumulator lahko večkrat polnimo in je trajnejši od baterije), bolj ekološki, hkrati pa enako mobilen in priročen kot baterijski.

    Zelo praktična, ekonomična in učinkovita rešitev je tudi povezava akumulatorskega pašnega aparata s celico za zbiranje sončne energije. Na ta način se akumulator pašnega aparata ob sončnih dneh polni kar na pašniku in brezplačno, kar še dodatno zmanjša stroške vzdrževanja in ohranja bolj zdravo in čisto okolje.

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Dolžina pašne ograje

Naslednji pomemben dejavnik pri izbiri pravega pašnega aparata je dolžina ograje, ki naj bi jo aparat napajal. Če ima naša električna ograja žice, trakove ali pletenice razporejene v več vrstah, je treba pri računanju dolžine ograje sešteti dolžino vseh.

Slabo vzdrževana ograja in rastje okrog nje, lahko močno oslabita ali celo preprečita delovanje električne ograje. Močno poraščen teren (visoka trava, grmičevje ipd.) pomeni dodatno obremenitev za pašni aparat in zmanjšuje njegovo učinkovitost, zato je redno vzdrževanje terena po katerem poteka ograja ključnega pomena.

Vrsta živali

Različne vrste živali so različno občutljive in različno dojemljive, kar je treba upoštevati tudi pri izbiri pašnega aparata. Če vzamemo za primer konja (ki je občutljiva žival in se hitro uči) in ovco (ki je veliko manj občutljiva in se počasneje uči), ugotovimo, da potrebujemo za konja šibkejši pašni aparat kot za ovco.

Na splošno je v ogradi ali izven nje težje zadržati vse divje živali (divjad), ovce, koze in perutnino, lažje pa konje, prašiče in druge domače živali.

Zmogljivost pašnega aparata

Zmogljivost pašnega aparata določata impulzna energija (izhodna moč) in napetost. Obe vrednosti morata biti navedeni v dokumentaciji pašnega aparata.

Splošno vodilo je:

  • pašni aparati z nizko impulzno energijo (0,2 Joula ali manj), so primerni za kratke ograje in slabo poraščen teren
  • pašni aparati z impulzno energijo do 5 Joulov so primerni za zahtevnejše živali (ovce, perutnino, divjad) in za zmerno poraščen teren
  • pašni aparati z impulzno energijo nad 5 Jouli so primerni za daljše ograje in bolj poraščen teren

Poleg impulzne energije je pomembna tudi napetost. Če je napetost premajhna, tok ne more potovati po celotni dolžini ograje. Pomembna je napetost v trenutku dotika živali z ograjo – najmanjša trenutna napetost ob dotiku živali z ograjo mora biti vsaj 2000 V. Za živali z daljšo dlako in manj občutljive živali je priporočljiva napetost med 3000 in 4000 V.

Osnovni pojmi prevodnosti pašnega materiala (žic, trakov in pletenic)

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Prevodnost prevodnikov (žic, trakov in pletenic) merimo glede na to, koliko upora predstavljajo električni energiji na enem metru dolžine. Merska enota za upor je Ohm (Ω). Manjša je ohmska upornost boljša je prevodnost.

Če ima prevodnik (žica, trak ali pletenica) nizko upornost (istočasno to pomeni visoko prevodnost), bo elektrika z lahkoto potovala po njej in napetost bo po vsej dolžini ograje stalna.

Za lažjo orientacijo nekaj okvirnih vrednosti:

  • zelo dobra prevodnost: manj kot 0,05 Ω/m upora
  • dobra prevodnost: do 0,40 Ω/m upora
  • srednja prevodnost: do 4 Ω/m upora
  • slaba prevodnost: do 15 Ω/m upora
  • nezadostna prevodnost: nad 15 Ω/m upora

Povzetek

Če upoštevamo vse zgoraj naštete dejavnike, lažje izberemo pravi pašni material za svoje potrebe.

  • pašni aparat izberemo glede na možnosti električnega napajanja ki so nam na razpolago, glede na dolžino ograje, poraščenost terena in vrsto živali za katero ograjo postavljamo
  • prevodni material (trak, žico ali pletenico) izberemo glede na dolžino ograje – manj upora (večjo prevodnost) ko ima prevodnik, daljša je lahko ograja
  • pri izbiri obojega upoštevamo še poraščenost terena na katerem bo postavljena ograja

dolzina_ograje_upornost

Primer:

Recimo da želite izračunati najdaljšo še funkcionalno dolžino ograje upoštevajoč naslednje podatke:

  • baterijski pašni aparata z impulzno energijo (izhodno močjo) 0,40 Joula
  • trak z upornostjo 0,14 Ω/m
  • teren je zmerno poraščen s travo

Izračun:

  1. vrednost upornosti traku 0,14 Ω/m je blizu vrednosti 0,05 Ω/m
  2. imamo baterijski pašni aparat, zato dolžino odberemo v tretjem stolpcu (cca. 8 km)
  3. ker je teren zmerno poraščen, odštejemo 50% dolžine
  4. Rezultat: z zgoraj omenjenim pašnim aparatom in trakom lahko na zmerno poraščenem terenu postavimo največ 4 km dolgo ograjo, da bo le-ta učinkovita in varna.

Vezni členi

Vsak trak, žica ali pletenica se nekje konča. Kaj pa, če je naša ograja daljša od koluta traku? Rešitev ki se prva ponudi je vzeti konec enega in začetek drugega traku, ju zvezati skupaj in nadaljevati s postavljenjem ograje. A obstaja boljša rešitev – takšna, pri kateri se ne zmanjša prevodnost traku in kjer se ne porazgubi moč električnega impulza v traku (ali žici ali pletenici). Vezni členi (konektorji) so izdelani prav v ta namen. Povezujejo dva konca žice, traku ali pletenice na način, ki zagotavlja prevodnost in stalnost električnega impulza v vodilu. So različnih širin, velikosti in oblik, prilagojeni uporabi z različnimi vrstami prevodnih elementov (žic, trakov in pletenic).

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V primeru da žico, trak ali pletenico na ograji napeljane na več višinah, je potrebno vrste povezati eno med drugo, da zagotovimo zaključen tokokrog in s tem prisotnost električnih impulzov v celotni ograji. To naredimo s vertikalnimi veznimi elementi, ki so med seboj povezani s prevodnim materialom (žico). Vzporedne trakove ali žice je priporočljivo povezati z vertikalnimi povezavami na več mestih vzdolž ograje, saj so takšne povezave dobrodošle tudi v primeru da pride do prekinitve toka v ograji (pretrganje žičke, traku ipd.). Vertikalne povezave namreč predstavljajo alternativno pot za električni tok in lahko tudi v primeru poškodbe žice, traku ali pletenice, poskrbijo za to, da je električni tok prisoten v celotni ograji.

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Napenjalci, napenjalne vzmeti, količki in palice

Daljša in močnejša ko je ograja, težja je in večjo pozornostje treba posvečati zagotavljanju njene trdnosti in obstojnosti. Vedeti moramo, da se vsi prevodni materiali (žice, trakovi in pletenice) širijo in krčijo glede na teperaturo zraka. Napenjalci s pomočjo napenjalnih vzmeti uravnavajo napetost ograje in preprečujejo da bi se ograja povesila in s tem ohranjajo njeno funkcionalnost in obliko. Pri večjih temperaturnih odstopanjih (ograjo smo naprimer postavili spomladi, pri 15ih stopinjah celzija, pozimi pa se temperature spustijo pod ničlo), je potrebno s pomočjo napenjalcev ročno zmanjšati napetost ograje, saj lahko predvsem pri daljših ograjah zaradi nizkih temperatur pride do velikih skrčkov in posledično do velike obremenitve žice oz. traku, ter izolatorjev in količkov.

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Podobno kot ostali elementi električne ograje, so tudi količki in palice izdelani iz različnih materialov. Plastični količki so idealni za začasne ograje, oziroma čredinke, ki jih po potrebi brez težav premikamo. Praktičnost seveda terja svoj davek in pri uporabi plastičnih količkov je potrebno upoštevati dejstvo, da so v podlago pritrjeni le s kovinsko konico in posledično niso zelo trdni in stabilni. Odlična rešitev je uporaba kombinacije obojih – plastičnih in bolj trdnih npr. lesenih količkov (oziroma količkov iz drugih trdnejših materialov – naprimer iz umetnih materialov, betona ipd.). Kotni količki morajo biti močnejši, saj so najbolj obremenjeni. Prav tako je smiselno, da je npr. vsak tretji ali četrti količek v ograji iz trdnejšega materiala. Za vmesno oporo žici, traku ali pletenici namestimo plastične količke, ki so lažji, bolj priročni (izolatorji so že del količka in jih ni potrebno naknadno nameščati) in ekonomični. Tako dobimo ograjo, ki je hkrati trdna, obstojna, funkcionalna in poceni.

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Izolatorji

V prejšnjem odstavku smo omenili da so na plastičnih količkih izolatorji že sestavni del količka, za lesene, betonske ali železne količke oziroma palice, pa je treba ustrezne izolatorje še izbrati.

Izolatorje izberemo glede na to, na kakšno vrsto količka ga bomo namestili, ter glede na to, kakšno električno ograjo imamo (žica, trak ali pletenica).

Podobno kot pri količkih, so tudi pri izolatorjih najbolj obremenjeni kotni izolatorji, zato na kotnih, oziroma na tistih količkih ki so najbolj obremenjeni, priporočamo uporabo ojačanih kotnih izolatorjev.

Končni ali vratni izolatorji so izolatorji s kovinsko prevodno zanko, ki jih namestimo na končni količek, kjer smo predvideli vhod v ograjo.

Skica5

Ročke

Ročka je tisti element, ki nam omogoča, da varno in praktično vstopamo v in iz električne ograje. Skozi ročko je napeljano prevodno jedro, ki zagotavlja stalen pretok električne energije skozi celotno ograjo, hkrati pa nam izolirano ohišje omogoča da lahko kadarkoli vstopimo ali izstopimo iz ograje, ne da bi morali predhodno izklapljati električno napetost v ograji. Tako se izognemo dodatnemu delu in morebitnemu prebegu živali v času odsotnosti električnega toka.

Najelegantnejša rešitev za takšna “vrata” v električni ograji, je kombinacija ročke in prevodne vzmeti ali elastične prevodne vrvi. Vzmet in ročka delujeta kot del ograje, ko ročko odpnemo, vzmet s krčenjem in raztezanjem poskrbi za to, da nam “vrata” niso v napoto pri vstopanju ali izstopanju iz ograde. Če namesto vzmeti za “vrata” uporabimo kar žico, trak ali pletenico, se le-ta ob ob odpiranju posede na tla, kjer se lahko zaplete ali pa umaže, kar ni le nepraktično, ampak tudi zmanjša učinkovitost ograje (blato na traku ali žici zmanjša električno prevodnost).

Skica6

Dodatna oprema

V ponudbi pašne opreme je ogromno pripomočkov, ki nam lahko olajšajo delo pri vzdrževanju električne ograje, nam pomagajo rešiti težave pri postavljanju le-te, ali pa zmanjšajo stroške napajanja ograje.

Ena takšnih rešitev so naprimer solarni moduli. Solarni moduli nam omogočajo, da električno ograjo napajamo s pomočjo sončne energije, s čimer je naša ograja cenejša, bolj ekonomična in prijaznejša naravi.

V času ko je čas ključnega pomena in nam ga navadno primanjkuje, je odlična rešitev mobilni nadzor električne ograje. S pomočjo SMS modula ki ga namestimo na električno ograjo, lahko prek svojega mobilnega telefona nadzorujemo delovanje električne ograje. Tudi v primeru napake na ograji, nam modul samodejno sporoči napako na mobilni telefon. Široka ponudba pripomočkov za nadzor napetosti v ograji, za boljšo ozemljitev, alarmov za javljanje napak v padcu napetosti v ograji, opozorilnih lučk ter znakov, lahko bistveno izboljša zanesljivost, varnost in trajnost vaše električne ograje, hkrati pa poskrbi tudi za varnost živali in ljudi, ki se gibljejo v njeni bližini.

Skica7

Skica8

Ko kupujete elemente za električno ograjo ali pa le razmišljate o postavitvi le-te, naj vam ne bo škoda časa za obisk specializiranih trgovin in posvet s prodajalci. Premišljen nakup bo vreden truda in časa ki ga boste vložili vanj, vaša električna ograja pa bo, s pravilno izbranimi kvalitetnimi materiali, dolgoročna naložba vredna svoje cene, četudi se vam ta ob nakupu zdi nekoliko (pre)visoka ;).

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