Kaj lahko povedo spremembe v obnašanju konja?

Kaj lahko povedo spremembe v obnašanju konja?

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Članek objavljen v Reviji o konjih, december 2007, ČZD Kmečki glas, d.o.o., 1001 Ljubljana, Železna c. 14, avtor: mag. Jože Starič, dr. vet. med.

Lastniki konj se pogosto sprašujejo, ali so določene spremembe v vedenju konja posledica prikritega obolenja ali so samo del normalnega obnašanja. Določene spremembe v obnašanju konja vsekakor zahtevajo našo pozornost ali pomoč veterinarja, saj so lahko vzrok resne zdravstvene težave. Najbolje lahko spremembe v vedenju konj analiziramo, če jih posnamemo s kamero med tem, ko so nemoteni v svojem okolju (boks, izpust), brez navzočnosti ljudi.

Skoraj vsako neprijetno počutje konja lahko privede do sprememb v njegovem obnašanju, ki pa jih lahko hitro pripišemo k normalnemu vedenju ali neprimernemu vedenju (razvada). Primeri takih sprememb v obnašanju so negativen odnos do dela ali zmanjšanje delovne uspešnosti brez kakršnega koli očitnega vzroka, različne vrste preveč intenzivnega reagiranja, prestrašenosti ali navideznih napadov panike z beganjem ali okamenelostjo ter kakršnokoli nezaželeno vedenje, kot npr. brcanje, kopanje ali udarjanje z nogami ob tla, grizenje, mahanje z repom, škrtanje z zobmi, suvanje z glavo ali grizenje sebe med delom in/ali med počitkom, brez očitnega vzroka neugodja.{+}

Namen prispevka je dati osnovne praktične nasvete za izključitev stanj, ki povzročajo pri konju telesno neugodje in imajo za posledico nastanek neželenih vedenjskih sprememb. Pogosto se te vedenjske spremembe štejejo za normalne ali kot posledica psiholoških motenj. Pri tem je potrebno pregledati zdravstveno zgodovino, zgodovino same reje, treninga, uspešnosti na tekmovanjih in obnašanja. Priporočljivo je, da konja pregleda veterinar, ki bo ocenil obnašanje in verjeten izvor konjevega telesnega neugodja.

Zgodovina stanja

Pri spremembah v obnašanju konja je pomembno, da lastnik oziroma skrbnik konja poda veterinarju natančno anamnezo o boleznih, zmogljivosti in življenju konja. Veterinar mora dobiti objektiven opis konjevega obnašanja (na primer: žrebec obrača glavo nazaj k telesu, povoha prepucij, se ugrizne v stegno, zaječi, brcne in se vrti v krogu), ne pa subjektivne ocene in presoje obnašanja (na primer: hoče pozornost, zato divja, je maščevalen, zraven pa poškoduje tudi sebe). Zelo pomagajo tudi posnetki, ki jasno pokažejo dogajanje. Pomembno je natančno določiti, kdaj se spremembe obnašanja začnejo, kdaj končajo, kako se razvijajo, kdaj in kje se pojavijo, kako pogosto se pojavljajo in če jih je mogoče napovedati in sprožiti. Skrbniki, ki razumejo konja in njegovo obnašanje, bistveno pripomorejo k razumevanju problema in uspešnemu odpravljanju težav.

Drugi cilj je opisati razmere in dogodke, pri katerih se sproži problematično obnašanje ali ga celo vzdržuje. Pomembno je, da to oceno poda tisti, ki se ukvarja s problematičnim konjem. Če je izvor predvsem psihološki, ga sprožajo predvsem določene socialne ali nastanitvene razmere. Ali se je konj tega obnašanja naučil in ga izvaja namenoma, na primer s ciljem, da se izogne delu? Mogoče je konj pogosto s svojim vedenjem dosegel svoj cilj. Zato je pomembno, kako se odzivamo, ko opazimo moteče vedenje, in če ga lahko zmotimo.

Zelo koristen pripomoček pri obravnavanju takih primerov je video posnetek problematičnega obnašanja. Pogosto je potrebno za dosego tega cilja opraviti dlje časa trajajoče snemanje konja in izvajanje sprožitvenih dejavnikov.

Prednosti video posnetkov konjevega obnašanja pred opazovanjem v živo so:

  • razkritje redkih vedenjskih sekvenc;
  • dolgotrajno snemanje omogoča odkrivanje ponavljajočih, težko opaznih znakov neugodja;
  • možnost večkratnega opazovanja period nezaželenega vedenja in tudi počasnih posnetkov omogoča lažjo analizo in diskusijo;
  • določeni vedenjski vzorci se lažje opazijo, če gledamo hitri posnetek, npr. razbremenjevanje okončin zaradi bolečine v okončini, hrbtu ali trebuhu;
  • zaznavanje dražljajev iz okolja, ki sprožijo, poslabšajo ali zmanjšajo neželeno vedenje (npr. med hranjenjem, pred /po delu …);
  • pri opazovanju ni prisoten človek, ki bi lahko konja motil pri njegovih aktivnostih;
  • časovna primerjava vedenja po določenem času;
  • spremljanje normalnega in splošnega počutja konja v njegovem okolju.
spremembe_01
Foto: Jaka Vinšek

Tabela 1: Primeri neželenega vedenja, ki so posledica telesnega neugodja oz. bolezni konja, ugotovljeni z videoposnetki konj.

spremembe_02
Foto: Jaka Vinšek

Ob sumu na prisotnost omenjenih vedenjskih motenj sta nujna osnovni in specialni klinični pregled konja (npr. rentgenska diagnostika, ultrazvok, endoskopija …), ki bosta težavo ovrgla ali dokazala.

Za prepoznavanje patoloških vedenjskih vzorcev je pomembno poznati pogostost in trajanje normalnih konjevih aktivnosti v boksu ali izpustu.

Tabela 2: Normalno obnašanje konja, ki je sam v boksu ali manjšem izpustu.

Primeri pogostejših vedenjskih motenj so spremembe v odnosu do dela in storilnosti konja, izbruhi nenavadnega obnašanja, samopoškodovanje.

Spremembe v odnosu do dela in storilnosti konja

Psihološko stresno ravnanje, treniranje in delovni program ali samo socialno okolje lahko povzročijo spremembo odnosa do dela in storilnosti pri fizično zdravem konju. To lahko povzroči fizično obolenje pri konju (npr. ulkus na želodcu). Pogosto se razume, da je slab odnos do dela psihološke narave, kasneje pa se ugotovi, da je primarni vzrok fizično obolenje.

Oglejmo si dva primera spremembe v odnosu do dela in storilnosti:

  • Kobila je morala zaradi slabe storilnosti in agresivnosti pri delu in kasneje popolnega zavračanja dela prenehati s športnim udejstvovanjem. Ko so jo hoteli uporabiti za razplod, so pri pregledu rodil ugotovili tumor jajčnika, težak skoraj 30 kg.
  • Kobili, ki je kazala podobne znake kot prva (kadarkoli so jo pripravljali za delo, se je nevarno upirala delu in pokazala samoagresijo), dodatno pa še znake blage kolike, so na koncu ugotovili absces v ozkem črevesu.

Izbruhi nenavadnega obnašanja

Primeri teh izbruhov so: napadi panike, pretirana plašnost, okamenelost in podobno. Tako obnašanje je pogosto interpretirano kot zavračanje dela, slabo vedenje. Pri tem nam lahko zelo pomagajo video posnetki konja, ki pogosto razkrijejo, da se ti vzorci obnašanja pojavljajo tudi, ko nas ni zraven. V primerih, ko se žival tako obnaša tudi, kadar nas ni zraven, gre najverjetneje za fizično obolenje.

Samopoškodovanje

Primeri samopoškodovanja so grizenje bokov, okončin, brcanje v steno, v trebuh in podobno. Pri kobilah gre v takšnih primerih najpogosteje za fizično neugodje, pri žrebcih in kastratih pa lahko govorimo o dveh vzrokih takega obnašanja. Prvi je bolečina in draženje, drugi pa proti sebi usmerjena agresija do drugih žrebcev. Kadar gre za slednjo, se pred samo poškodovanjem žrebec obnaša, kot bi se obnašal do drugih žrebcev v naravnem okolju.

spremembe_05
Foto: U.B.

Žrebec tipično voha svoje boke, dimlje, iztrebke ali umazanijo na steni, vratih, prehodih in se nato ugrizne v bok, prsi, trebuh, rame, okončine ali moda. Pri tem tudi spušča razne zvoke in brca, kot bi bil prisoten še drug žrebec. Žrebec lahko lovi tudi svoj rep. Tako obnašanje lahko postane stereotipno in se lahko ritmično ponavlja. Pogosto je posledica dolgočasja in frustriranosti, ker se rado ponavlja v času dneva, ko konj nima zaposlitve in socialnih stikov. Motnje se lahko začnejo počasi in napredujejo do rednega ponavljanja in močne intenzivnosti. Pri fizični bolečini in draženju praviloma ni ovohavanja in oglašanja, epizode se začnejo brez opozorila in pogosto prekinejo neko smiselno obnašanje, npr. pašo, počitek. Epizode se lahko začnejo nenadno in eksplozivno pri ostri bolečini, kot bi konja pičila čebela ali osa. Med epizodami takega vedenja lahko konj kaže tudi druge subtilne znake neugodja, ki jih lahko opazimo na dlje časa trajajočih video posnetkih, kot npr. dvigovanje noge, brcanje pod trebuh. Primer takega obnašanja je bil ugotovljen pri žrebcu, za katerega se je izkazalo, da ima ledvične kamne.

Zaključek

Nezaželeno vedenje se pogosto poslabša ali izboljša v novem okolju. Ni redko, da se nezaželeno vedenje zaradi fizičnega vzroka začne ravno pri delu konja, socialnih interakcijah z drugimi konji (kadar je v bližini kobila, drug žrebec, med spolnimi interakcijami …) ali ob aktivnostih v okolici konja (priprava na delo …). To daje vtis, da je problem najverjetneje psihološke narave, vendar pa se neredko izkaže, da ga v resnici povzroči fizično neugodje. Po drugi strani pa lahko prav socialne interakcije in aktivnosti v okolici konja le-tega zamotijo in zabrišejo problem. Tak primer je, da konj izraža količne bolečine, dokler ne dobi krme.

Včasih ima konj več manjših fizičnih težav, ki jim posamezno ne bi pripisali, da so zmožne spremeniti vedenje, skupaj pa ga lahko. Nekateri konji so tudi zelo stoični in lahko prenašajo znatne fizične bolečine pri delu. Posledica tega je, da lahko hitro spregledamo fizični problem oz. obolenje. Večina konj je odkritih v svojem obnašanju, kar pomeni, da se praviloma nezaželeno vedenje zaradi fizičnega vzroka prekine, ko ga odpravimo.

mag. Jože Starič, dr. vet. med.

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