Odpravljanje zajedavcev

Odpravljanje zajedavcev

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Vsebina članka vsebuje in predstavlja del ponudbe iz prodajnega programa www.holistic-horse.net.

Notranji zajedavci lahko povzročijo mnoge zdravstvene probleme – od oslabljenega imunskega sistema, podhranjenosti, kolik, čirov, do poškodbe tkiv, pljuč in krvnih žilic. Ohranjanje prisotnosti zajedavcev pod kritično mejo je zato nujen del osnovne oskrbe konj. Toda preden se spravimo nad zajedavce z vsem možnim arzenalom kemičnega orožja, je treba problem preučiti z večih zornih kotov. Zajedavci namreč niso nujno vzrok konjevih težav, zelo pogosto so zgolj pokazateljle-teh. Agresivna, neutemeljena uporaba kemičnih past proti zajedavcem lahko naredi več škode kot koristi ter celo poveča njihovo prisotnost.

sarga

Živalim (vključno z ljudmi) majhne količine zajedavcev v organizmu ne škodijo. Zdrav organizem, predvsem je tu pomembno zdravo črevo z zadostno populacijo koristnih bakterij, je zajedavcem (ter drugim virusom, bakterijam, mikrobom) neprijazno okolje. Prav tako je pomembno vzdrževanje zdravega, čistega okolja (dovolj prostora, čiščenje izpustov, rotacija pašnikov).

Vendar pa tudi preveč sterilno okolje ni dobro. Da bi se konju razvila imunska odpornost, mora biti namreč že kot žrebe izpostavljen različnim vplivom okolja, vključno z virusi in zajedavci. Prvo imunost dobi žrebe od matere. Po približno 6 tednih pa začne izgrajevati lasten imunski sistem ter tvoriti protitelesa proti številnim organizmom, s katerimi pride v kontakt. Če bi žrebe držali v sterilnem okolju ter mu onemogočili kontakt z »normalnimi« bakterijami, mikrobi, zajedavci, itd. bi s tem onemogočili tudi razvijanje njegovega imunskega sistema. Redno dajanje kemičnih sredstev proti parazitom že v najzgodnejši mladosti torej rezultira v konju z oslabljenim imunskim sistemom in brez oz. z zmanjšano naravno odpornostjo. Toksini, ki jih ob tem vnesemo v še nerazvit organizem, pa še dodatno pripomorejo k večji obolevnosti.

Načeloma velja, da bolj kot je življenjski slog konja blizu življenjskemu slogu prostoživečih konj, večja je njegova naravna odpornost ter mnogo maj je podvržen številnim zdravstvenim težavam, ki pestijo sodoben konjeniški svet.

Z drugimi besedami: zdrav konj ob primerni (čim bolj naravni) oskrbi ter podpori z zeliščnimi sredstvi proti zajedavcem mora biti sposoben sam vzdrževati ravnovesje v organizmu – torej ohranjati količino zajedavcev pod mejo, ki bi bila zdravju škodljiva.

Znaki okuženosti

Znaki, da se je količina parazitov v telesu dvignila nad raven, pri kateri je organizem sam sposoben opraviti z njimi, se kažejo kot:

  • splošno slabo zdravstveno stanje;
  • dolga, groba dlaka brez leska;
  • ponavljajoče se kolike;
  • napihnjen trebuh;
  • pomanjkanje apetita;
  • hitra izguba telesne teže;
  • driska;
  • apatija in depresija;
  • anemija;
  • kri v blatu;
  • nemir;
  • srbeče področje zadnjika;
  • čiri in edemi.

Ena izmed metod ugotavljanja prisotnosti zajedavcev je analiza blata. Merila o tem, kolikšna je sprejemljiva raven zajedavcev so sicer dokaj različna; po eni izmed lestvic pa manj kot 200 jajčec na gram velja za nizko stopnjo okuženosti, medtem ko več kot 800-1000 jajčec na gram pomeni zelo visoko stopnjo okuženosti, kaže na zdravstvene težave ter zahteva odločnejše ukrepe.

Čeprav koristna, pa analiza blata le ni 100% zanesljiva. Do lažnega negativnega štetja npr. lahko pride, če so zajedavci ravno v obdobju, ko ne ležejo jajčec; če so v tankem črevesu, jetrih, srcu ali pljučih (če torej migrirajo skozi telo); jajčeca manjših vrst parazitov lahko konj celo prebavi. Poleg tega imajo različni konji različno visok »tolerančni prag«: na nekatere slabo vplivajo že relativno nizke ravni zajedavcev, medtem ko drugi tudi pri večji okuženosti ne kažejo vidnejših znakov. Zato je vedno potrebno vzeti v ozir celotnega konja ter upoštevati tudi druge kazalce psiho-fizičnega počutja.

Da je raven zajedavcev presegla zdravju neškodljivo mejo, lahko pokaže tudi analiza krvi (povišana raven levkocitov). Seveda pa tudi to ni povsem zanesljiva metoda, saj lahko na dvig ravni levkocitov vplivajo številni drugi dejavniki.

Škodljivost kemičnih past proti parazitom

Redna uporaba kemičnih sredstev proti zajedavcem (po najnovejših trendih naj bi se paste dajala na vsake 2-4 mesece, na tržišču pa je možno dobiti tudi mnoge kemične pripravke za vsakdanjo uporabo) lahko naredi mnogo več škode kot zajedavci sami.

Res je, da kemične paste pobijejo praktično celotno populacijo zajedavcev – toda hkrati uničijo tudi celotno črevesno floro. Zdravo črevo z zadostnimi populacijami koristnih črevesnih bakterij pa je osnovni pogoj za vzdrževanje dobrega imunskega sistema.

Kemične paste so problematične iz več razlogov:

  • Že zato, ker so kemične in z njimi vnesemo v telo koncentriramno dozo močnih toksinov, kar najbolj pogubno vpliva na črevesno floro, jetra in ledvica, pri bolj občutljivih konjih pa lahko sproži epizodo laminitisa.
  • Paste pobijejo večino parazitov, kar je sicer njihov cilj, toda s tem se toksinom iz paste pridružijo še toksini, ki nastajajo pri razkrajanju mrtvih zajedavcev v črevesju. Če parazitov že v osnovi ni bilo veliko, to ne predstavlja takega problema. Če pa je bil konj močno glistav, pa ima tako nenadno odmrtje velike količine glist lahko usodne posledice – kolike, zamašitev črevesja, v resnično ekstremnem primeru celo smrt. Resnici na ljubo do tako drastične reakcije pri konjih pride res v izjemno redkih in ekstremnih primerih; je pa smrt zaradi tega dokaj pogosta pri zanemarjenih muckih (ko je glist skorajda več kot mucka samega). Vsekakor je treba biti pri ekstremno glistavih konjih previden: če se uporabi kemična pasta, jo je bolje uporabiti v več manjših odmerkih (in tako postopno pobiti zajedavce), ne pa v enem samem. Prav tako je potrebno upoštevati težo konja – paste so večinoma dozirane za 600-700 kilogramske konje, zato je treba natančno preučiti navodila ter količino paste prilagoditi teži konja.
  • Paste pobijejo tudi črevesno floro (probiotične bakterije). Črevesna flora pa  je center imunskega sistema (po nekaterih ocenah 70% imunskega sistema zavisi od dobro delujoče, bogato naseljene črevesne flore). Njeno sesutje je (skupaj s toksini) še dodaten udarec organizmu, po uporabi paste pa je konj bolj dovzeten za parazite, kot je bil pred njo. Razmere v porušenem črevesju so namreč ugodne za parazite, ugodne, saj primanjkuje koristnih bakterij. Pri zdravem konju pa so razmere v črevesju parazitom negostoljubne in se le-ti mnogo manj zadržujejo/razmnožujejo v njem.
  • Zelo velik problem je, da so zaradi množične in redne uporabe strupov paraziti nanje čedalje bolj odporni. Posledica: paste so vedno močnejše (bolj toksične), učinek na parazite pa je vedno manjši. Problemov, ki izhajajo iz tega je več, predvsem: a) konj je podvržen vedno hujšim strupom in b) kadar bi bilo zares nujno na hitro pobiti parazite, nam kar naenkrat zmanjka dovolj močnih sredstev (situacija je podobna kot pri odpornosti na antibiotike).

Zgoraj navedeno potrjuje vedno več študij, npr. študija, objavljena v reviji The Horse (http://www.thehorse.com/ViewArticle.aspx?ID=12105):

Študija je bila v obdobju med junijem in decembrom 2007 izvedena v Kentuckyju, ZDA. Testirali so učinkovine fenbendazole, oxibendazole, pyrantel pamoate in ivermectin.Ugotovitve:

  • odpornost zajedavcev na kemične preparate se povečuje že vse od leta 1950
    prisotnost glist (roundworm) se je zmanjšala ob uporabi snovi fenbendazole in oxibendazole, ne pa ob uporabi ivermectina ali pyrantel pamoata.
  • prisotnost malih glistic (small strongyles) se je zmanjšala ob uporabi ivermectina, ostale tri snovi pa so bile neučinkovite.
  • po tretmaju se gliste ponovno naselijo hitreje kot so se včasih – intervali med kemično pasto in rekolonizacijo postajajo vse krajši.

Ali vse to pomeni, da nikdar ne bi smeli uporabiti kemičnih past proti parazitom? Ne! SO situacije, ko je uporaba kemičnih sredstev nujna. VENDAR pa bi morala biti uporaba kemičnih sredstev, zlasti takih z več različnimi učinkovinami, vedno dobro utemeljena ter rezervirana za nujne primere. Nepremišljena, neutemeljena in pogosta raba kemičnih sredstev je tista, ki privede do problemov (večja dovzetnost konja in večja odpornost zajedavcev), medtem ko je premišljena uporaba kemičnih sredstev v situaciji, ki tak ukrep dejansko zahteva, nujna.

Holističen pristop k odpravljanju zajedavcev:

Je pravzaprav zelo enostaven in bi ga lahko skrčili na »življenjski slog, čim bolj podoben življenjskemu slogu prostoživečih konj«. Zavedati se je treba, da povečana dovzetnost za zajedavce kaže na slabše psihofizično stanje (morda tudi neprimerno oskrbo) ali celo na globlje zdravstvene probleme. Podobno velja za dovzetnost in občutljivost na mrčes: insekti bolj oblegajo konje s slabim imunskim sistemom, ki imajo hkrati tudi močnejše reakcije na pike mrčesa. Zato še enkrat: zdrav konj mora biti ob primerni oskrbi in zeliščni podpori sposoben ves čas ohranjati raven zajedavcev pod zdravju škodljivo mejo.

Boja proti zajedavcem se je potrebno lotiti celostno – preusmeriti fokus z zajedavcev samih na konja kot celoto. V nasprotnem primeru pride do situacije »operacije uspela, pacient umrl« (torej pobitje zajedavcev, vendar ob hkratni škodi konjevemu zdravju).

Edini smiseln dolgoročni ukrep je dejansko krepitev konjevega imunskega sistema ter vzdrževanje zdrave črevesne flore. Cilj naj nam bo konj, ki je dovolj zdrav in odporen, da je ob podpori zelišč sposoben ohranjati nizko, neproblematično raven zajedavcev. »Upravljanje« z zajedavci je proces, ne enkratno dejanje. Kajti tudi če bi nam teoretično uspelo pobiti prav vse do zadnjega (kar je nemogoče celo ob uporabi kemičnih sredstev), s tem problema ne bi rešili prav za dolgo; slej ko prej konj namreč požre novo zalogo.

Kot rečeno, splošen dolgoročni ukrep je krepitev imunskega sistema in zdrave flore tako pasivno kot aktivno:

  • pasivno: izogibanje in omejevanje dejavnikov, ki slabijo konjev organizem (stres, cepljenje, kemične snovi, pretirana uporaba zdravil, pretirana uporaba krmil, nenaraven življenjski slog, itd).
  • aktivno: čimbolj naraven življenjski slog (prosta reja, dostop do sena), raznovrstna paša (potrebna je pazljivost pri konjih, nagnjenih k laminitisu), dodajanje zelišč in probiotikov.

Hkrati se je zajedavcev zelo priporočljivo lotiti tudi z rednim dajanjem zelišč z antiparazitskim delovanjem. Konji v naravi lahko do takih zelišč pridejo sami, domačim konjem pa jih moramo zagotoviti mi. Pri tem si lahko pomagamo z zeliščno tinkturo proti zajedavcem Equimins Parasite repel (http://www.holistic-horse.net/equimins_parasite_repel.html )

Equimins Parasite repel vsebuje 14 skrbno izbranih zelišč (kvasijo, cimet, poprovo meto, kajenski poper, česen, kamilice, sabljasti triplat, ingver, meto, komarček, timijan, sladki koren, pelin, plezajočo lakoto), ki telo prečistijo in okrepijo, hkrati pa ustvarjajo zajedavcem neugodne razmere v črevesju. Ta zelišča zajedavcev ne pobijejo, sprožijo pa njihovo postopno izločanje iz telesa. Ne smete pričakovati, da bo že ena zeliščna kura odpravila vse zajedavce – bo pa zmanjšala njihovo število ter hkrati konja bolje usposobila za bok z njimi. Z uporabo zeliščnih sredstev, kot je Equimins Parasite repel, sprožite pozitivno spiralo: del zajedavcev se izloči, organizem se prečisti in okrepi – zaradi tega je konj bolj odporen proti zajedavcem, ki jih je manj, interval do ponovne rekolonizacije pa je daljši – ponovna zeliščna kura dodatno zmanjša njihovo število in okrepi organizem, in tako naprej do stopnje, ko invazija zajedavcev ostaja daleč pod mejo, škodljivo zdravju. V nasprotju s kemičnimi pastami je redna uporaba zeliščnih sredstev proti zajedavcem koristna, saj deluje kot preventiva in kot kurativa ter pomaga vzdrževati ravnovesje v organizmu.

Seveda je pomembna tudi skrb za čisto okolje (priporočljiva je rotacija pašnikov in kompostiranje gnoja, saj vročina v kompostu uniči večino jajčec), vendar pa vam ni treba ustvarjati sterilnih razmer ali konja prikrajšati za uživanje na pašniku in v družbi drugih konj.

Pomembno je, da dobi konj zadostno količino bakra; veliko ga vsebujejo alge, v skrajni sili pa lahko dodajamo tudi bakrov sulfat. Ne več kot 2 grama na dan in le, če smo prepričani da ga res potrebuje, saj je bolje, da konj dobi potrebne hranilne snovi s hrano (predoziranje z minerali in vitamini je prav tako škodljivo kot pomanjkanje le-teh).

Kadar je zajedavcev veliko

Pri »normalno« invaziranih konjih (torej srednja obremenjenost) z »normalnimi« zajedavci (različne vrste glist – askaridi, stronglidi, ipd) redna uporaba zeliščnih sredstev ob hkratnem primernem življenjskem slogu več kot zadostuje.

Problem nastane pri močno glistavih konjih in/ali takih, ki so okuženi z bolj problematičnimi zajedavci (npr. metljaj). V takih primerih je včasih potrebno poseči po kemičnih sredstvih proti parazitom. Ne pa vedno in ne kar po vseh povprek – preden posežemo po kemičnih sredstvih, je treba pretehtati vse dejavnike, vključno z zdravstvenim stanjem konja ter dosedanjimi tretmaji.

Kadar sumimo, da ima konj velike težave z zajedavci, najprej naredimo analizo blata, da vidimo, s čim imamo sploh opravka in kako resna je situacija.

Če analiza pokaže zgolj prisotnost različnih vrst glist, situacija ni tako problematična in je v večini primerov rešljiva z uporabo zeliščnih sredstev proti parazitom. To je seveda proces, saj močno okužen konj ob uporabi zelišč ne bo že ob prvi kuri izločil vseh zajedavcev. Bo pa izločil dobršen del, ob naslednji kuri (ob hkratni krepitvi imunskega sistema) jih bo izločil še več ter tako naprej, dokler ne pridemo do sprejemljivega stanja. Če pa imamo opraviti s kakšno resnejšo okužbo (metljaj, srčne gliste, ipd.) pa je kot rečeno, posvet z veterinarjem in uporaba specifičnih sredstev vsekakor na mestu.

Seveda obstajajo situacije, ko ne moremo ali ne želimo čakati več mesecev, da bi konj vzpostavil primerno ravnovesje:

  • Če v hlev pripeljemo novega, zanemarjenega konja z visoko stopnjo zajedavcev, za katerega vemo, da je živel v neprimernih pogojih in ni bil (skoraj) nikoli razglisten, potem je uporaba kemičnih sredstev smiselna predvsem zato, da ne bi prišlek po nepotrebnem okužil ostalih konj. V takih primerih je bolje dati manjšo količino paste v roku 2-3 dni in ne vsega naenkrat, da ne bi zaradi množičnega odmrtja parazitov prišlo do zamašitve črevesja. Po tretmaju pa je nujna uporaba probiotikov (npr. Equimins Micro-flora, http://www.holistic-horse.net/equimins_micro_flora_balance.html ali Equimins Probiotics http://www.holistic-horse.net/equimins_probiotics.html ) za rekolonizacijo uničeno črevesno floro. Prav tako je potrebno posebno skrb nameniti krepitvi imunskega sistema (zelišča, sadje, zelenjava, čim manjša izpostavljenost stresu in toksinom, itd). Nadaljnje kure je sveda priporočljivo izvesti z zeliščnimi sredstvi proti parazitom.
  • Če je konj tako okužen z zajedavci, da le-ti predstavljajo večjo grožnjo njegovemu zdravju kot uporaba kemičnih sredstev. Takih ekstremnih primerov se je potrebno lotiti previdno in ob pomoči veterinarja. Nevarnost za kolike in zamašitev črevesja je v takih primerih namreč precejšnja, zato je prisotnost veterinarja nujna. Verjetno ni treba poudariti, da je v takih primerih odpravljaje zajedavcev šele prvi korak na poti k rehabilitaciji ter da je potrebno izjemno pozornost posvetiti okrepitvi imunskega sistema, oživitvi črevesne flore in prečiščenju organizma.

Ne glede na to, kakšen protokol uporabimo, pa se moramo zavedati, da je visoka okuženost verjeten pokazatelj globljih zdravstvenih težav. Pri konjih, ki so živeli v neurejenih razmerah, je močna glistavost sicer res lahko samo posledica zanemarjanja (in mine po eni ali dveh kurah). Toda če je močno okužen konj, ki je živel v normalnih higienskih razmerah ali bil celo redno tretiran proti zajedavcem, potem je tako velika invazija znak za alarm. Tak konj ima resne zdravstvene težave! Vedno pogostejša uporaba kemičnih sredstev tega ne bo rešila – v takih primerih je bistveno, da odkrijemo in odpravimo globlji vzrok problema. Zajedavci sicer sami do neke mere povzročajo določene zdravstvene težave, toda njihova pretirana prisotnost je pomemben pokazatelj sistemskih težav v organizmu, ki ga ne smemo zanemariti.

Za konec

naj še enkrat poudarim bistvene točke:

  • Redna uporaba kemičnih sredstev proti zajedavcem je škodljiva, saj zmanjšuje odpornost konja proti zajedavcem (porušenje črevesne flore, toksini) ter hkrati povečuje odpornost zajedavcev proti kemičnim sredstvom. Kemična sredstva je zato treba uporabljati zgolj, kadar se pokaže dejanska potreba (izjemoma) in ne na slepo.
  • Zdrav konj mora biti ob primerni oskrbi (čim bolj naraven življenjski slog) in redni uporabi zelišč proti parazitom sposoben vzdrževati ravni zajedavcev pod zdravju škodljivo mejo. Če se okuženost nenadoma poveča, je potrebno najti vzrok, saj povišane ravni zajedavcev običajno kažejo na globlje zdravstvene probleme.

Mateja Černič

holistic

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